Arne Kalland. Morgan Young. Harold G. Bruce Donaldson. Masami Ito. Kazuo Sato. Walid I. William M. Jean Herbert. Tony Elger. Nagatsuka Takashi. Shunsuke Tsurumi.
Broadcasting in Japan : Case-studies on Broadcasting Systems
Robert J. Margaret Powell. Robert Nichols. Carl Crow. Home Contact us Help Free delivery worldwide. Free delivery worldwide. Bestselling Series. Harry Potter. Popular Features. New Releases. Notify me. Description This volume collects eleven essays written by Japanese experts on various aspects of Japanese business management and is a sequel to the volume Industry and Business in Japan.
It examines the mechanisms for Japan's phenomenal economic growth since the Second World War by analyzing Japanese management, business groups, production systems and business strategy. Product details Format Paperback pages Dimensions x x She shows that it consists of three international factors, namely mass popularization, marketization and globalization, intertwined with the following three domestic factors.
First, dramatic demographic change: a significant decline in prospective entrants to university is becoming clearly visible.
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The year-old population reached a peak of a little more than 2 million in and then steadily declined to 1. This decline still continues, and the figure will drop to around 1. This implies that in the late s a number of universities and junior colleges failed to meet their admission targets. At present about 60 per cent of all private junior colleges and about 30 per cent of all private senior colleges are failing to reach their admission targets. Second, there is the economic factor.
After the collapse of the bubble economy in the early s, collaboration projects were set up between the business sector and higher education institutions in order to make industry more competitive. This collaboration had a severe impact on the functioning of a large number of universities. Policy change is the third domestic factor. Deregulation and structural reform became key concepts in the education field also. Responding to the demands of the business sector, MEXT initiated a process of deregulation concerning the university system.
In addition, evaluation by third-party institutions was made obligatory. Will the Japanese university system become completely globalized — which is to say Americanized — since most of the reforms are based on an American, or at least Anglo-Saxon model? Hada regards this as a serious problem. She states that a major difficulty is achieving harmony of the current and future reforms with the specificity of the national culture in this case: Japanese , while simultaneously developing a system that is internationally competitive.
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Regarding this, Hada deals with the problem of global competition for the best international students. Japan, with its new system, has the clear intention of becoming the major international hub in higher education for North-East Asia. Will it be able to realize its intentions in this respect?
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Japan is likely to face increasing competition, even within its own region, from China, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan. On the other hand, as English proficiency becomes increasingly important, to enhance chances in the job market, more and more Japanese students will choose to study overseas in English-speaking countries mainly the USA, the UK and Australia. A final but not unimportant observation regarding educational reform: in order to make the Japanese university system more competitive the government should realize that what is good for politics and the economy is not necessarily also good for education and research.
In his chapter on the Class-A war criminal syndrome Kei Ushimura describes the changing historical consciousness of the Japanese especially Japanese journalists by looking at how the so-called Class-A war criminals have been regarded since the s. During the Tokyo trial two suspects died and one was further excluded from the trial due to mental disorder.
Broadcasting in Japan : Masami Ito :
Obviously, if one studies the court proceedings, one finds it quite difficult or even impossible to label them all with the same phrase. The Japanese were eager to stick to this label, using it over and over again to such an extent that it became a sort of a syndrome. This reflects a typical example of the Japanese attitude towards foreign ideas. It is a manifestation of haigo shiso, or respect for foreign, in particular Western, ideas dating back to the Meiji era.
These visits ignited the anti-Japanese movement abroad, forcing Japanese journalism to provide its readers with more detailed information on the Tokyo trial and the individuality of the suspects. This trend has become stronger over the last years. The change is to be found in the fact that now the differences of each of the war criminals are being discovered; a distinction is now being made between their characters and their different responsibility for the warfare. In this sense the Tokyo Trial can be seen as a globalized form of war tribunal, modelled on the Nurnberg example.
The initial Japanese adaptation was to regard the 28 and later 25 criminals as a group.
Since , however, largely due to foreign pressure gaiatsu the criminals are seen as individuals with individually committed crimes. By the mids single-member households comprised 25 per cent of all households; two-generation families comprised about 60 per cent, whereas three-generation households comprised 13 per cent, but now: The number of single-member households is rising, as affluence, education and increased adaptability enable more young and old people to lead independent, self-reliant lifestyles.
When grandparents live in an extended family it is often at the request of their children who benefit from pooling family assets and having live-in housekeepers and baby-sitters. Increasingly, grandparents object to this role being thrust on them. Most newly wed couples are now living apart from their parents.
Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 31 In addition to these changes in family structure, it should also be noted that the divorce rate, traditionally very low in Japan, is on the rise. In the rate was 2. Partly responsible for this rising divorce rate has been the changing mental programming of Japanese women.
LEARNING EFFECT AND SOCIAL CAPITAL: A CASE STUDY OF NATURAL DISASTER FROM JAPAN
While Japanese women had power within the home, their influence outside was very limited. However, this is changing, albeit slowly. Older women, too, are more assertive. For example, in March , hundreds of housewives in Hiroshima Prefecture forced through a referendum that deposed the local mayor, because he would not build a new hospital for the aged, who are mainly taken care of by housewives. Junko Saeki shows some aspects of the status of women that have dramatically changed since the s.